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De-briefing Ethereum’s Parity Predicament: What’s Next?

11.11.2017 Erik Kuebler 0

De-briefing Ethereum’s Parity Predicament: What’s Next?

After an unidentified actor “accidentally” triggered a series of bugs that destroyed approximately $150 million worth of digital currency, the world waits for a substantive answer — is this vulnerability an anomaly? An “I told you so”? Or a humbling opportunity to secure the Ethereum network?

What Happened?

On November 6, “Devops199,” an alleged amateur programmer, set off a chain of bugs on Parity, a popular digital wallet for Ethereum. These bugs affected multisignature, or “multisig,” accounts — “wallets” that require multiple users to enter their keys before funds can be transferred. The place these wallets connect to is known as a “library” contract.

  1. According to Parity, an attempt to fix a vulnerability that allowed hackers to steal $32 million from multisignature wallets in July of 2017 inadvertently created a second vulnerability in the library contract. This allowed Devops199 to gain control of every multisignature wallet as a sole owner.

  2. After Devops199 realized what had happened, he “killed” (deleted) the code. Unfortunately, this locked all funds into multisignature wallets permanently, with no way to access them.

  3. Because of the functionality of the current blockchain, $150 million worth of ether (ETH), the tradable currency that fuels the Ethereum platform, is now effectively destroyed and inaccessible to anyone.

Among the victims of this bug are several recently successful ICOs that chose to store their funds in a Parity wallet because of its multisig option and compatibility with various hardware wallets.

Parity’s Response (So Far)

On November 7, tweets on Parity’s official Twitter account acknowledged the vulnerability and confirmed that the funds affected are frozen and can’t be moved anywhere.

A day later, on November 8, Parity de-briefed the bug, explaining that it was indeed possible to turn the Parity Wallet Library contract into a regular multisig wallet and become the owner of it, which is exactly what Devops199 did. Parity now has a tool to check if a user/wallet has been affected by the vulnerability.

Parity’s History of Hacks

This isn’t the first time Parity has fallen victim to a security exploit. Parity’s multisignature contracts were previously the target of three thefts totalling 150,000 ether in July of 2017 (the second-largest hack after the DAO fiasco). And losses could have been exponentially higher. However, the “White Hat Group,” a collection of hackers and activists, was able to intervene and drain the majority of other wallets before they could be compromised as well.

“Future multi-sig wallets created in all versions of Parity Wallet have no known exploits.”

Official Parity website post following the July 19 hack

Jeff Coleman, an expert in blockchain technologies and currently a researcher and advisor with L4 Ventures, described Parity’s response to the July 19, 2017, attack as “worrying, to say the least.”

Coleman told Bitcoin Magazine that his primary concerns centered around Parity’s immediate response and its tendency to downplay the significance of the compromise, choosing instead to blame a large number of external causes:

“They blamed observers for not finding the bug before it was exploited; they blamed lack of incentivization for observers; and they blamed the Solidity language for not blocking access by default to the functions the [Parity team] failed to protect.”

He further noted that Parity seemed to be blaming the complexity of the well-audited wallet (which they still believed to be secure) from which they had originally modified their code. And also that Parity didn’t take responsibility for their own inadequate quality control and audit procedures.


Developers in the community are desperately trying to find a fix to the Parity predicament. Coleman believes that “from a technological perspective, there is nothing short of a hard fork [a non-backward-compatible change to the Ethereum protocol] to restore the destroyed funds.”

After the DAO hack in 2016, the Ethereum Foundation had already accepted a hard fork to restore lost funds, with the common understanding that this was a sort of “mulligan” — a one-time fix for a young, developing blockchain. This scenario, nevertheless, divided the Ethereum blockchain into two parts and created Ethereum Classic, the original Ethereum blockchain, backed by a community that vehemently opposes editing transaction history to restore lost funds.

Using hard forks as interventions to “correct” worst-case scenarios like this is highly controversial, especially since blockchains are meant to be immutable. So, it’s difficult to convince the Ethereum community to use a hard fork to rescue one team from a mistake. While many acknowledge sympathy for smaller accounts storing personal ETH, sentiment is not as sympathetic for the 300,000 ETH that belonged to the Polkadot Project, a Parity initiative.

Arseny Reutov, an application security researcher for blockchain security firm, affirmed this community sentiment, while acknowledging that hard forks can be solutions. However, he agrees that Ethereum cannot simply hard fork any time there is a problem on the network. He believes blockchains should expect “more and more high profile thefts and incidents,” and that the problem lies in the infant Ethereum platform itself — specifically, in the native Solidity programming language.

If a Hard Fork Isn’t the Answer, Then What Is?

Both Coleman and Reutov believe that the key to gaining the community support necessary to restore funds is to combine the Parity situation with similar situations in which funds have been lost due to various kinds of mistakes. Coleman referenced those detailed in EIP 156: “Reclaiming of ether in common classes of stuck accounts,” for example.

Coleman also pointed out that in any of these instances, it must be “completely unambiguous who the original owners of the assets were.” The necessary changes could then be made and packaged together in an “already planned hard fork, such as the upcoming Constantinople fork.”

Even so, restoring funds is problematic. Ethereum core developers must discern which mistake-affected funds will be returned to users. Will all funds be returned or only a select few — or will this be a ~500,000 ETH learning experience?

The post De-briefing Ethereum’s Parity Predicament: What’s Next? appeared first on Bitcoin Magazine.

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Launching a Cryptocurrency “Token Generation Event” (aka an ICO)

31.10.2017 Erik Kuebler 0

Ethereal ICO panel

On October 27, 2017, disruptors in the cryptocurrency field gathered at the San Francisco Ethereal SummitSponsored by ConsenSys, the summit provided a diverse mix of panels and workshops that demystified the “initial coin offering” (ICO) or “token generation event.”

Side note: Vernacular is key. Referring to a token launch as an ICO is so “September.” The process is now referred to as a “token generation event.”

At the “How to Launch a Token” panel, token generation event veterans Galia Benartzi (co-founder of Bancor Protocol), Matt Liston (CSO at Gnosis) and Piotr Janiuk (co-founder and CTO of the Golem Project) guided Ethereal participants through a hypothetical: founding a hat company and funding the development through a token. Here are some of the key points that they discussed.

Step 1: Determine if the token model fits for the new company

Imagine the whole process backward: What layer does the company involve — application, platform or protocol? Design the decentralized concept first and then discern if a token is necessary.


  • Is the project based on a decentralized model? If not, equity funding is a viable option –– no need for a token.

  • What is the token’s utility within the network? How are customers involved in the network? For example, is the token facilitating and incentivizing collaboration between the community in the network? If so, tokens (similar to shares and equity in a normal company) are a great way to distribute participation among stakeholders.

Tokens work best when fueling network effects around ideas –– when there are benefits to being an early adapter/stakeholder.

Step 2: Find a strong legal team and a favorable regulatory environment

Regulation in the cryptocurrency space is in its infancy and varies greatly around the world.


  • Find a competent lawyer with an understanding of the space that can give risk parameters. It is important to minimize risk for the project.

  • Select a government that defines clear boundaries and has a forward-thinking mentality.

Although blockchains and cryptocurrency promise decentralized disruption to all industries, anarchy would be unfavorable to all. All companies must comply with the law.

Step 3:  Work on the prototype phase

Establish a white paper, set up the concept on the testnet and prove the concept.


  • White paper: describe your network, protocol and model. White papers should strike the proper balance between being math-heavy and marketing-heavy. The goal is for users and stakeholders to understand exactly what the network is doing.

  • Prove that your concept works and expose its source code. Everything should be 100 percent transparent to the public.

  • Trustless (trust forced through code) and transparent networks are critical to long-term success. Secure and validate data by rewarding “oracles,” people who provide trustworthy answers and validate that events did in fact occur. On the flip side, penalize those who lie to the network.

Trust and transparency are paramount for any company that is considering funding its development with a token.

Step 4: Connect with the community

Generating interest for the token and setting the foundation for strong community support before finally launching a token generation event to the public is crucial.


  • Develop a public-relation strategy. Share as much as possible. Post videos, host AMAs, etc. This process can be grueling, but it is necessary to establish a global presence and field questions.

  • Prepare for a fast-paced environment. Communication builds authenticity and credibility with supporters around the world.

  • Listen to outside perspectives and criticisms.

Because token generation events allow for decentralized methods of funding, the company’s diligence process should be decentralized to match.

Tokens generation events are complicated and don’t work for every business type. However, they unlock a new economic driver: permissionless venture capital.

The post Launching a Cryptocurrency “Token Generation Event” (aka an ICO) appeared first on Bitcoin Magazine.