DCEs may be brick-and-mortar businesses, exchanging traditional payment methods and digital currencies, or strictly online businesses, exchanging electronically transferred money and digital currencies. Some digital currencies are backed by real-world commodities such as gold. Creators of digital currencies are often independent of the DCEs that trade the currency. The ASIC viewed the services offered bitcoin asic india legally requiring an Australian Financial Services License, which the companies lacked.
New York state business, was shut down by the US Secret Service after operating since 2002. In July 2008, Webmoney changed its rules, affecting many exchanges. Since that time it became prohibited to exchange Webmoney to the most popular e-currencies like E-gold, Liberty Reserve and others. Also in July 2008 E-gold’s three directors accepted a bargain with the prosecutors and plead guilty to one count of “conspiracy to engage in money laundering” and one count of the “operation of an unlicensed money transmitting business”. In 2013, Jean-Loup Richet, a research fellow at ESSEC ISIS, surveyed new money laundering techniques that cybercriminals were using in a report written for the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Following the launch of a decentralized cryptocurrency bitcoin in 2008 and the subsequent introduction of other cryptocurrencies, many virtual platforms were created specifically for the exchange of decentralized cryptocurrencies.